MUSA currently aims to assist in developing solutions for the various health-system challenges of South Africa and countries surrounding it by conducting research in three programmes, i.e. Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology, Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy, and Pharmaceutical Healthcare Governance.

In the three programmes we follow a multidisciplinary and collaborative approach in order to strengthen the impact of our research on the healthcare industry and the scientific community. This approach allows for the combination of expertise and the different points of view of diverse researchers in order to promote strong teamwork.

List of research projects 2008 - 2020 (current and completed)

Programme: Pharmaceutical Public Healthcare Governance

Past and current Research Projects


Study leaders / Promoters

2009. Availability of registered pharmaceutical structures in South Africa: 2003 until 2007. (Rabali, R) (M Pharm)

Rabali, R., Basson, W.D., Serfontein,, J.H.P. & Lubbe, M.S.

2010. Aspects of the usage of gastro-intestinal medication in South Africa: A geographical approach. (Klaassen, N.) (MPharm)

Klaassen, N., Basson, W.D., Serfontein, J.H.P. & Lubbe, M.S.

2010. Prescribing patterns of benzodiazepines: A comparative study between two provinces in South Africa. (Visser, C.) (MPharm)

Basson, M., Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2010: Difference in the prescribing patterns of dispensing and non-dispensing doctors in a section of the private health care sector of South Africa: A retrospective drug utilisation analysis of medicine claims. (De Franca, C.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Serfontein, J.H.P. & Basson, M.

2012. Evaluation of the documentation systems for medicine logistics at primary health care clinics (PHCC) in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District (Van der Westhuizen, A.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Basson, W.D. & Bekker, H.E.

2013. Work-related basic need satisfaction and flourishing of employees in a corporate pharmacy environment. (Coetzee, C.) (MPharm).

Basson, M., Lamprecht, J.C. & Eksteen, M.

2014: Evaluation of the medicine procurement and supply management system in public hospitals in Lesotho (Tema, M.A.) (MPharm)

Kotze, I., Steyn,  R. & Eksteen, M.

2016: Expectation and needs for pharmaceutical care in a specific elderly population in the Southern Johannesburg. (Jansen van Rensburg, A.) (MPharm).

Kotze, I., Lubbe, M.S. & Mostert, L.

2016: Pharmacists’ perception of the implementation of the National Health Insurance in South Africa (Pienaar, J.) (MPharm).

Kotze, I., Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2017. Pharmacists’ perceptual systems regarding their role in medication adherence in South Africa: An IQA approach. (Basson, W.D.) (PhD).

Lamprecht, J.C., Botha, K.F.H. & Reitsma, G.

2018. Provision of pharmaceutical care and public health services in an ambulatory elderly population. (Jaquire, J.) (MPharm).

Joubert, R., Kotze, I. & Juluam, M.

2019. Evaluation of factors affecting the implementation of HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines in Lesotho (Ramathlebane, MV) (PhD)

Lubbe, M.S. & Minnie, C.S.

To be completed


Investigation of the demographic profile and standard of community pharmacy practice in Lesotho. (Tlali, R.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Gerber, J.J. &  Naude, A.


Evaluation of the access and availability of antiretroviral drugs through the Centralised Chronic Medicines Delivery Distribution programme in the Northern Cape. (Herbert, J.W.) (PhD)

Lubbe, M.S., Joubert, R.,

Perceptual systems of the self-management of students living with diabetes mellitus: an IQA approach. (Jacobs, J.K.D.) (MPharm)

Basson, W.D., Basson, M.M.

Evaluation of the geographical location of medicine distribution points in the North West Province (Mogorosi, M.R.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Naudé, A. & Kotzé, I.

The scope of practice of the pharmacist and pharmacy support personnel in a changing healthcare environment (Mfuku, Z) (PhD).

Lubbe, M.S., Naidoo, P. & Butler, N.

Non-communicable disease management in the public health system of Lesotho. (Maja, L) (PhD)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

Nature and standard of retail pharmacy practice in the Kingdom of Eswatini. (Amu, A.)(PhD)

Burger, J.R., Lubbe, M.S., Truter, I. & Joubert, R

Exploring vaccine hesitancy in students attending a South African university. (Leeuwner, A.) (MPharm)

Basson, M.J. & Basson, W.D.

Ownership of community pharmacies and its influence on equitable pharmaceutical service provision in South Africa (Makoena, M.) (PhD)

Lubbe, M.S., Burton, S. & Basson, W.D.

Assessment of the availability and usage of reference sources in South African pharmacies (Soopee, A.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Joubert, R. & Van Niekerk, I.

Evaluation of a pharmacy grading system on good pharmacy practice compliance in South Africa. (Tlala, V.) (PhD)

Lubbe, M.S.


Sub-programme: Pharmaceutical Economics and Policy

Past and current Research Projects


Study leaders /promoters

2008. Aspects of drug usage in a section of the private health care sector of South Africa: A managed health care approach. (Smit, C.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2008: A retrospective analysis of the usage patterns of antiretroviral drugs. A pharmacoeconomic approach. (Kruger, J.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Rakumakoe, D.M. & du Plessis, J.M.

2008: Aspects of the usage of antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents in the private health care sector. (Breed, W.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S. &  Serfontein, J.H.P.

2008: Overview of the prescribing patterns of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: 2004-2007. (Harmzen, A.) (MPharm)

Serfontein, J.H.P. & Lubbe, M.S.

2009. A retrospective analysis of the usage patterns of hipolipidaemic drugs: A pharmacoeconomic approach. (Bloem, J.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2009: A retrospective analysis of the prescribing patterns of methylphenidate. (Rothmann, S.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Lamprecht, J.C. & Brand, L.

2009: An analysis of the nature of prescribing practices by using a medicine claims database: 2001 to 2006. (Van der Westhuizen, W.) (MPharm)

Basson, W.D. &  Lubbe, M.S.

2010. A retrospective analysis of the prescribing patterns of calcium channel blockers in a section of the private health care sector (Smit, R.) (MPharm).

Serfontein, J.H.P., Steyn, R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2010. A review of antiretroviral medicine cost in Lesotho clinics. (Ramathebane, M.V.). (MPharm)

Serfontein, J.H.P., Lubbe, M.S. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

2010. Anti-epileptic medicine treatment cost: A pharmaco-economic approach. (Van Zyl, T) (MPharm)

Serfontein, J.H.P., Lubbe, M.S. & Rakumakoe, D.M

2010. Prescribing patterns of biologic immunomodulating agents in a private health care sector in South Africa for the period 2005-2008. (Roux, I.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Lamprecht, J.C. & Burger, J.R.

2010. Prescribing patterns of drugs used in Parkinson’s and other related diseases in the private health care sector of South Africa (Van der Merwe, S.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., du Plessis, J.M. & Bekker, H.E.

2015: Factors influencing the cost of a therapeutic algorithm for Schizophrenic patients in the private health sector of South Africa. (Husselman, D.). (MPharm).

Joubert, R., Burger, J.R. &  Lubbe, M.S.

2015: Medicine pricing of chronic diseases in the South African private health sectors (Rothmann, L.) (Part-time).

Lubbe, M.S. & Gerber, J.J.

2015: Pharmacoeconomic modelling for policy decision-making in South Africa: the case of sofosbuvir for Hepatitis C infection (Fraser, I.) (PhD)

Burger, J.R., Lubbe, M.S.,  Sonderup, M.W. & Stander, M.P.

2017. Burden of rheumatoid arthritis in the private health sector of South Africa: analysis of medicine claims data. (Olivier, N.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R., Joubert, R., Naude, A. & Lubbe, M.S.

2017: Usage patterns and cost analysis of antihypertensive drugs reimbursed by the national health insurance in Gabon. (Akebayeri, M.L.) (MPharm). 

Burger, J.R., Lubbe, M.S. & M Cockeran

To be completed


Cost-of-illness of tuberculosis from the patient perspective in a health centre in Maseru, Lesotho. (Mafaesa, M.C.) MPharm

Burger, J.R. & Joubert, R.

The burden of childhood cancer in Ghana (Owusu, W.E.) (PhD)

Burger, J.R., Lubbe, M.S. &  Joubert, R.

An epidemiological and health economic overview of breast cancer in a South African private healthcare funding environment. (Saley, S) (PhD)

Burger; J.R., Snyman; J., Perumal; D., Lubbe, M.S.


Sub-programme:  Pharmacovigilance and Pharmacoepidemiology

Past and current Research Projects


Study leaders / Promoters

2008: A retrospective analysis of the prescribing patterns of isotretinoin. (Kruger, U.V.) (MPharm)

Gerber, J.J. & Lubbe, M.S.

2009: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessing the efficacy of AbsorbatoxTM2.4D in patients with diarrhoea predominant or alternating Irritable Bowel Syndrome. (Klopper, R.) (MPharm)

Lamprecht, J.C., du Plessis, J.M. &

Snyman, J.R.

2009: Prevalence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in chronic diseases before and after implementation of Prescribed Minimum Benefits (PMBs) in the private health care sector in South Africa. (Katende-Kyenda, N.) (PhD)

Serfontein, J.H.P.,

Lubbe, M.S. & Truter, I.

2010. A longitudinal analysis of the prescribing patterns of antiretroviral drugs in a section of the private health care sector over 3 years. (Paterson, T.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Serfontein, J.H.P. & du Plessis, J.M.

2010. Prescribing patterns of antibiotics in Lesotho public health institutions: (Adorka, M.) (PhD)

Serfontein, J.H.P., Lubbe, M.S. & Gous,


2010. Prescribing patterns of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs at Sekgoma Memorial Hospital ARV therapy clinic in Botswana. (Kalokoni, E.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Serfontein, J.H.P. & du Plessis,


2010. The treatment of asthma with special reference to children: A retrospective drug utilisation review. (Mouton, J.) (MPharm)

Gerber, J.J., du Plessis, J.M. & Lubbe, M.S.

2011. Comparison between the medicine prescribing patterns of HIV/Aids paediatric and non-HIV/Aids paediatric patients. (Mocke, M.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S. & Burger, J.R.

2011. The relationship between the management and control of asthma in primary health care (Du Plessis, J.M.) (MPharm)

Gerber, J.J. & Brand, L.

2012 Hypertension treatment in a section of the prescribed management benefits market in South Africa. (Joubert. R.) (PhD).

Serfontein, J.H.P. & Lubbe, M.S.

2012. A drug utilisation review of the concept of metabolic syndrome using a South African medicine claims database. (Burger, J.R.) (PhD)

Serfontein, J.H.P. & Lubbe, M.S.

2012. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions of warfarin prescriptions in South Africa (Blaauw, S.) (MPharm)

Joubert, R., Lubbe, M.S. & Lamprecht, J.C.

2013 A pharmacoepidemiological evaluation of Type II diabetes mellitus medicine management in Queen Elizabeth II in Lesotho (Letsa, M.M.) (MPharm).

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2013. A review of “antidepressants” medication usage by South African children and adolescents (Van Rooyen, J.C.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2013. Assessment of adverse drug reactions caused by HAART at antiretroviral clinics in Maseru district, Lesotho. (Maja, L.J.) (MPharm).

Lubbe, M.S. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

2013. Clozapine usage in a public sector psychiatric hospital in the Nelson Mandela Metropole (Moolman, M.) (MPharm)

Lamprecht, J.C., Joubert, J.M. & Lubbe, M.S.

2013. Prescribing patterns of antiretroviral drugs in a district hospital in North-West. (Rix, J.) (MPharm).

Lubbe, M.S. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

2013. Prescribing patterns of asthma treatment in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. (De Wet, H.M.) (MPharm).

Joubert, R., du Plessis, J.M. & Lubbe, M.S.

2013. Treatment patterns of dermatological disorders in the private health care sector of Namibia (King, R.) (MPharm)

Gerber, J.J.,  Lubbe, M.S. & du Plessis, J.M

2013. Usage and cost quantification of antidepressants with known off-label indications (Le Roux, J.D.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2014: A retrospective analysis of antidepressant non-compliance and discontinuation and the long term effects thereof in the private health care sector of South Africa. (Slabbert, N.) (PhD)

Lubbe, M.S., Harvey, B. & Brink, C.B.

2014: Antibiotic usage in South Africa: A longitudinal study (Agyakwa, W.). (MPharm).

Lubbe, M.S., Burger, J.R. & Katende-Kyenda


2015: A retrospective analysis of medication adherence among epileptic patients in the private health sector of South Africa (Jacobs, K.) (MPharm).

Julyan, M., Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2015: Antibiotic use and resistance patterns in the Namibian private health sector (Pereko, D.) (PhD)

Lubbe, M.S. & Essack, S.

2015: Health care workers’ perceptions regarding the pharmacovigilance system in the Dr Kenneth Kuanda District. (Goosen, L.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Rakumakoe, D.M. & Bekker, H.E.

2015: Prescribing patterns of central nervous system drugs among children, adolescents and their families with/without treatment for ADHD (De Villiers, S.). (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S. & Burger, J.R.

2015: Usage of NSAID in a patient with chronic renal diseases. (Meuwesen, P.). (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M., Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2015: Self-reported use of methylphenidate by hostel students at a South African tertiary academic institution (Dreyer, J.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R., Kotzé, I. & van Dyk, S.


2016: Assessment of potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing in elderly patients of the South African private health sector (Van Heerden, J) (MPharm).

Burger, J.R., Gerber, J.J. & Julyan, M.

2016: Influence of anti-epileptic treatment changes on adult patients’ clinical outcomes in an outpatient population, North West. (Derksen, R.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S. & Rheeders, M.

2016: The renal safety profile of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as used in combination in patients on antiretroviral therapy. (Gajee-Eloff, A.A.) (MPharm)

Viljoen, M., Lubbe, M.S. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

2017: Clinical outcomes and renal safety in HIV/AIDS patients on tenofovir-containing regimens in Lesotho (M Sello) (MPharm)

Rakumakoe, D.M. & Lubbe, M.S.

2017: Prescribing patterns of ADHD medication in children under the age of eighteen years in the Western Cape from 2005-2013. (L Joubert) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R & Truter, I.

2017: Prevalence of carbapenem resistance in adult patients admitted to a private hospital in Daspoort, Tshwane (De Kock, R.) (MPharm)

Rakumakoe, D.M., Du Plessis, J.M. & Lubbe, M.S.

2017: The prescribing patterns of echinocandins in adult patients in a private hospital (Gray, A.) (MPharm).

Julyan, M. & Ddu Plessis, J.M.

2017: Triglyceride levels after six months of lopinavir/ritonavir therapy as an indicator for pancreatitis risk (Greffrath, W.P.) (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M. & Viljoen, M.

2017: Using hospital data to generate facility-specific antibiogram for a private hospital in the Western Cape. (Snyman, H.M.) (MPharm).

Du Plessis, J.M. & Burger, J.R.

2018: Bipolar disorder in the South Africa private health sector: Longitudinal analysis of prevalence, comorbidities and prescribing patterns. (Akinrogunde, A.P.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S. & Burger, J.R.

2018: Adherence to post-operative pain medication following day case orthopaedic surgery at a South African private hospital (Booysen, V.) (MPharm).

Burger, J.R. & Du Plessis, J.M.

2018: The prevalence and configuration of nausea in patients receiving intravenous chemotherapy in a private oncology centre in South Africa. (Smit, T.) (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M. & Kotzé, I.

2018: Therapeutic drug monitoring of gentamycin and amikacin in hospitalised patients in a private hospital, Western Cape. (Du Toit, M.) (MPharm).

Rakumakoe, D.M., Burger, J.R. & Rheeders, M.

2018: Usage of central nervous system medication in HIV/AIDS patients: longitudinal analysis (2005-2015) of prevalence and prescribing pattern changes. (Wafawanaka, F.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S. & Kotzé, I.

2018. Research methods for conducting pharmacoepidemiological studies using medicines claims data (Obeng-Kusi, M.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R., Cockeran, M. & Lubbe, M.S.

2018: Testosterone undecanoate associated polycythaemia in males with late-onset hypogonadism in a private practice (Bester, H.L.) (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M. & Julyan, M

2019: Secondary Candida infection resulting from antibiotic use in an ICU unit (Pieterse, A.) (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M. & Julyan, M.

2019: Pharmacoepidemiological analysis of comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension in outpatients at a public hospital (Mugaba, T.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2019: Guideline compliance in type 2 diabetic care:  Regional hospital outpatient department in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda District (Venter, D.E.) (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M., Vorster, M. &  Joubert, R.

2019. Pharmacists' perception towards pharmacovigilance and the reporting of adverse drug reactions in South Africa (Jordaan, P.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Kotzé, I. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

2019. Factors leading to uncontrolled blood pressure in patients taking antihypertensive treatment in Lesotho (Mafisa, R.K.) (MPharm)

Joubert, R. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

2019. Epidemiology of childhood cancer in a section of the private health sector of South Africa (Otoo, M.N.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

2019. Assessment of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in a South African private hospital group (Van der Merwe, M.) (MPharm)

Du Plessis, J.M. &  Julyan, M.

2019. Influence of blood culture results on antimicrobial prescribing in a private hospital in North West. (Du Plessis, A.) (MPharm)

Joubert, R., Du Plessis, J. & Lubbe, M.S.

To be completed


Opioid prescribing trends and patterns in the South African private health sector, 2010-2015. (Chauke, J.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R. & Lubbe, M.S.

Medicine treatment patterns of psychiatric co-morbidities in HIV/AIDS patients in a psychiatric outpatient department (Chintagunta, R.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., du Plessis, J.M. & Vorster, M.

Profile of South African HIV/AIDS patients in a medical scheme environment (Erasmus, T.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Burger, J.R. & Naudé, A.

Adherence to antiretroviral drugs after changing from a multiple-tablet regimen to a fixed-dose combination regimen in adult HIV/AIDS patients (Kruger-Swanepoel, G.E.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Vorster, M. & Rakumakoe, D.M.

Evaluation of adverse drug reactions documentation in Botswana (Makojoa, A.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Burger, J.R. & Naudé, A.

Self-reported adherence of patients on antiretroviral therapy at a provincial hospital in South Africa (Mashanyare, T.) (MPharm)

Vorster, M. & Julyan, M

The profile and standard of reporting of

adverse drug reactions in South Africa (Matlala, M.F.) (MPharm)

Steyn, H. & Lubbe, M.S.

Prescribing patterns of atypical antipsychotic agents in the treatment of bipolar disorder in the South African private healthcare sector. (Buckle, A.) (MPharm)

Lubbe, M.S., Bodenstein, J. & Bodenstein, M

Assessment of current pharmacovigilance guidelines in Southern Africa: A descriptive document analysis. (Makhene, N.J.) (MPharm).

Burger, J.R., Lubbe, M.S., Steyn, H. & Vorster, M.

Analysis of adverse event reports for patients with diabetes on Novo Nordisk® insulins in Africa and the Middle East during 2018. (Mlotshwa, C.) (MPharm)

Burger, J.R., Rakumakoe, D.M. & Vorster, M.

Quantitative assessment of antibiotic utilisation in public sector healthcare systems of Limpopo Province, South Africa. (Mthombeni, C) (PhD)

Burger, J.R., Lubbe, M.S., Shellack, N., Julyan, M.